講師：Michael Kelly (英国 サウサンプトン大学教授、言語政策 http://www.southampton.ac.uk/
題目：Theory and Practice in European Language Policy : Lessons Identified
Theory and practice of European language policy: lessons identified
University of Southampton
This paper will examine the theory and practice of language policy in Europe as it has been developed by the two main multinational bodies: the Council of Europe and the European Union. It will briefly trace the evolution of institutional, educational and social policies in respect of the learning and use of languages. It will identify lessons about the strengths and limitations of policy.
It will suggest that theory involves particularly the policies developed by state and quasi state entities to regulate behaviour. Practice consists of the implementation of policies and their effect on actual behaviour. The paper will examine the policies of the two main multinational bodies, giving a brief characterisation of their recent development.
The Council of Europe has had a leading role in language education policy, promoting education and culture through its language policy unit, which is responsible for policy reports, for the Common European Framework of Reference and for the European Language Portfolio. It also oversees the European Centre from Modern Languages at Graz. The aspiration of these initiatives is to promote plurilingualism.
The European Union has played a significant role in policy on language use, promoting political unity and economic development through the free movement of workers and the generation of jobs and economic growth. It carries this out through a range of institutions and initiatives within the Commission, including the Directorates General for Translation and Interpreting, the Erasmus programmes, the Eurobarometer studies, the Multilingualism unit, and a range of projects & tools. It promotes the recognition of multilingualism.
Both the Council of Europe and the European Union have been challenged by the economic crisis of 2008 and by the very substantial social changes that have led to linguistic ‘superdiversity’.
The paper will examine the influence of policy, and the tension between the language market and the policies promoted. It will discuss the tension between communication and identity in language, the tension between policy and its implementation, particularly in education, the importance of tools (but tension between their purpose and utility). And it will reflect on the subordination of language policy to other priorities.